Specialised Reproductive Immunology Unit
The correct immunological balance is key in the success of a pregnancy. Our specialised consultation on the Immune Factors Study is focused on the diagnosis and treatment of complex infertility cases due to immunological disorders to achieve a full term pregnancy and healthy baby at home.
The immune system protects us by maintaining balance in our body against external aggressions, both physiological such as growth of the pregnancy or pathological such as infections or allergies. Its main role is to recognise some elements are foreign to our body and this triggers the necessary actions to control them.
During gestation, implantation begins in the woman’s body with the growth of a different being from the genetic material from the mother and father. On certain occasions, maternal tolerance can be altered putting the development of the foetus at risk. It is important that a state of tolerance occurs between the mother’s immune systems and the embryo so that the pregnancy develops successfully.
How to detect immunological problems
Studies that are carried out to try to guess the immunological causes of implantation failures highly depend on the patient’s clinical history, but in general, an immunological study is carried out to study:
- Endometrial defences known as Natural Kills (NK) which help to connect the mother and embryo’s blood vessels.
- Alterations in blood immunoglobulin anti-bodies.
- Cytokines and interleukins that act in the activation of lymphocytes.
- A maternal/ embryo compatibility study through the genotype of the maternal KIR and the paternal HLA-C.
The medical solution to the immunological problems causing embryo implantation failure is very complex. The different factors impeding correct implantation must be jointly evaluated on a case by case basis. Our specialised Reproductive Immunology unit studies metabolic, immunological and endocrinological mechanisms which appear in the decisive phase of the pregnancy and later find the appropriate treatment for each couple.